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Technical Guide for CompactFlash (CF) and Secure Digital (SD) Cards

 

Industrial CF and SD cards are the most common Flash storage form factors in industrial applications. CompactFlash (CF) became the most successful of the early memory card formats, surpassing miniature and Smart media cards. Formats such as MMC/SD memory cards are smaller than CF, while offering comparable capacity and speed.

Traditional CF cards use the Parallel ATA (PATA) interface, but in 2008, a variant of CompactFlash, CFast was announced. CFast (also known as CompactFast) is based on the Serial ATA (SATA) interface.

There are two main subdivisions of CF cards, 3.3 mm thick type I and 5 mm-thick type II (CF2). The type II slot is used by miniature hard drives and in some specialty cameras, but is not as common. There are four main card speeds: original CF, CF High Speed (using CF+/CF2.0), faster CF 3.0 standard and the faster CF 4.0 standard adopted as of 2007. We now have CF 6.1, which introduces the fastest transfer speeds yet, using Ultra DMA 7 (UDMA 7)

CF cards can be used directly in a PC card slot with a plug-in adapter, used as an ATA (IDE) or PCMCIA storage device with a passive adapter or with a reader. Since the CF card is based on the PATA/IDE interface, it can easily be put on an PATA/IDE disk interface, as a Master or Slave device. Hence the CF card can serve as a disk drive in a Legacy PC using the IDE interface. This is because the CF card has a TRUE IDE mode, which allows the CF card to function exactly as a PATA/IDE drive. This mode is entered when the card has pin 9 grounded on the 50 pin connector when power is applied. When is TRUE IDE mode the CF card is not hot swappable. The passive adapter takes care of grounding pin 9.

 

 CF Technical Description

The CompactFlash interface is a 50-pin subset of the 68-pin PCMCIA connector. “It can be easily slipped into a passive 68-pin PCMCIA Type II to CF Type I adapter.The interface operates, depending on the state of mode pin 9 on power-up, as either a 16-bit PC Card Memory or I/O mode card, or as an IDE/PATA Disk via TRUE IDE mode.

CF IDE mode defines an interface that is Physically smaller than, but electrically identical to the PATA/IDE interface. The CF device contains an Advanced Technology Attachment|ATA controller mode and appears to the host device as if it were a hard disk. CF devices must operate at 3.3 volts or 5 volts, and can be swapped from system to system.  CF (in TRUE IDE mode) supports cylinder-head-sector| (C-H-S) and 28-bit logical block addressing (LBA 28).  CF 5.0 introduced support for LBA-48 addressing. CF cards with flash memory are able to cope with extremely rapid changes in temperature. Industrial  CF cards can operate at a range of -40° to +85° C.

 

Performance

The CF Interface is basically a Parallel ATA interface transferring 8 or 16 bit data in standard Memory and I/O modes or in TRUE IDE mode. Ultra DMA capable, these cards are capable of very high data transfer rates, provided the controller mapping is efficient. Usually page based mapping is used in the higher end cards.

CompactFlash speed can be specified in “x” ratings, such as 8x, 20x, 133x. This is the same system used for CD-ROM and indicates the maximum transfer rate in the form of a multiplier based on the original audio CD data transfer rate, which is 150 kByte/s.

S = K  * 150 KB/S

where ‘S = transfer speed, ”K” = speed rating. For example, 133x rating means transfer speed of: 133 x .15MByte/s = 19.95MB/s.

The X ratings aren’t seen often anymore. Manufacturers are now placing the speed ratings on cards.

These are manufacturer speed ratings. Actual transfer speed may be higher, or lower, than shown on the card  depending on several factors. The speed rating quoted is almost always the sequential read speed, while write speeds are often slower.

Modern UDMA-7 CompactFlash Cards provide data rates up to 145MB/S.

As a note, the USB 2.0 interface is limited to 35 MB/s and lacks bus mastering hardware, USB 2.0 implementation results in slower access. So testing speeds for CF on a USB 2.0 card reader is not recommended. USB 3.0 provides for higher speeds, so testing on these readers is better. However not all card readers use ULTRA DMA. The best speed tests are seen using a PATA/IDE bus capable of operating in high ULTRA DMA modes, using a short 80 conductor ribbon cable in CF to IDE adapter capable of using Ultra DMA.

Alternatively a PATA to SATA adapter can be used. These generally use a bridge chip which is capable of  Ultra DMA modes. This is when the true card capability can be seen.

 

CF Use in Embedded Systems

CF card us in embedded systems, such as routers has been very popular even in the present. Legacy routers almost always contain CF cards. Direct connection of the 50 pin parallel bus to a CPU is not practical, although it was done in the old legacy systems, at a time when PATA drives were common. With the advent of Serial ATA (SATA), and most CPUs having a SATA port available, The CF card could be connected to the CPU using a CF to SATA bridge chip. This should allow full potential of the CF card to be realized.

On a standard CF type 1, there is a physical limitation on the number of Flash packages that can be placed on the PCB. (4) 48 pin packages are the limit. Therefore, card capacity is limited by this and the density of each Flash package. Another way to increase capacity is by using bonded die on a substrate. This is expensive and only makes sense in high end applications, not consumer products.

Using high capacity MLC or TLC devices, densities of 1TB or higher are possible. For better reliability 3D TLC based NAND can be used. Capacities of 256GB and 512GB are common.

Using higher density BGA package Flash can be a consideration for increasing density.

However, as we shall see the market is moving toward SDHC and SDXC technologies that show higher capacity and the same or higher than CF, especially using UHSII.

 

File Systems for CF Cards

A factory preformatted CF card is file system agnostic. An MBR is placed at LBA0 where the bios can detect the card. At that point, the card can be high level formatted with any file system. By far the most popular file systems used are from the Windows OS. Fat 32 and NTFS are popular and used in PCs and many SLR cameras and audio devices. Additionally, higher end CF cards support the TRIM function which optimized use of Flash-based devices. Linux OS Apple OS Journaled file systems can also be installed. This is typical in embedded systems such as routers.

Higher end CF cards support the secure ATA command set, the military security command set (an extension to the ATA specification) commands, SMART commands (to monitor card health) and HPA (Host Protected Area). These features are there to support Industrial and critical applications.

It is important to select a CF card vendor for critical applications that can support the addition of customer specific functions, as well as having support for solving compatibility issues should they arise.

 

SD/SDHC/SDXC Cards

SD Card Pins

SD (Secure Digital) Card Basics

The SD card was spawned from the MMC (Multimedia) card. Very similar in electrical operation and form factor. The MMC card fell out of popularity in card format, and was replaced with the SD card.  The MMC card has one big advantage over the SD card in its capability to transfer 8 bits per frame to the SD cards 4 bits. SD has CPRM secure keys for recorded content protection. However, it’s not used regularly, since royalties are charged.

MMC as an electrical entity is retained for use embedded MMC (e.MMC). Popular for use in embedded systems.

 

SD includes four card families available in three different sizes. The four families are:

Standard-Capacity (SDSC) to 2GB (extended to 4GB)

High-Capacity (SDHC) to 32GB

eXtended-Capacity (SDXC) to 2TB- (exFat)

SDIO (which combines I/O functions with data storage – (not part of the SD card specification)

 

The SD interface is completely different than that of the CF/ATA. Operating voltages are 3.3V or 1.8V, with SDXC having a lower voltage transfer capability on added pins. SD is a hybrid (Parallel/Serial) interface.

The SD card operates in SD card mode or SPI mode. Mode is determined at power up, by the host device driver, sending a special command into the card. SPI mode is a 1 bit mode, which is speed limited, but popular in micro-controller applications. SPI interfaces are common in the micro-controllers.

 

There are three basic transfer modes supported by SD:

SPI mode (one bit separate serial in and serial out bits)

1 bit SD mode Bidirectional (separate command/response line)

4-bit SD mode Bidirectional (separate command/response line)

Add to this the Ultra High Speed (UHS) modes, I, II and III.

 

Low speed cards support 0 to 400 kbit/s data rate and SPI and one-bit SD transfer modes. SD 2.0 cards support up to a theoretical 12.5 MB/s data rate in four-bit mode and 3.125 MB/s in SPI and one-bit SD modes. This is with a 25 MHz Host Clock. SD3.0 Upped clock speed to 50 MHz, with a resultant doubling of these speeds. Moving forward, speeds have increased significantly with UHS modes using DDR Clocking, much higher host clock speeds, and added low voltage differential signaling pins in the highest UHS modes.

 

SDHC

Version 2.0 also introduces a High-speed bus mode for both SDSC and SDHC cards, which doubles the original Standard Speed clock to produce 25MB/s.

SDHC host devices are required to accept older SD cards. However, older host devices do not recognize SDHC or SDXC memory cards, although some devices can do so through a firmware upgrade. Older Windows operating systems released before Windows 7 require patches or service packs to support access to SDHC cards.

 

SDXC

The Secure Digital eXtended Capacity (SDXC) format, announced in January 2009 and defined in version 3.01 of the SD specification, supports cards up to 2TB (2048GB), compared to a limit of 32GB for SDHC cards in the SD 2.0 specification. SDXC adopts Microsoft’s exFAT file system as a mandatory feature.

Version 3.01 also introduced the Ultra High Speed (UHS) bus for both SDHC and SDXC cards, with interface speeds from 50MByte/s to 104MByte/s for four-bit UHS-I bus.

Version 4.0, introduced in June 2011, allows speeds of 156MByte/s to 312MByte/s over the four-lane (two differential lanes) UHS-II bus, which requires an additional row of physical pins.[16]

Version 5.0 was announced in February 2016 at CP+ 2016, and added “Video Speed Class” ratings for UHS cards to handle higher resolution video formats like 8K.

Main  of exFAT (as a FUSE module) in order to be able to mount exFAT-formatted volumes. However, SDXC cards can be reformatted to use any file system (such as ext2, UFS, or VFAT), alleviating the restrictions associated with exFAT availability.

 

Command interface

SD cards and host devices initially communicate through a synchronous one-bit interface, where the host device provides a clock signal that strobes single bits in and out of the SD card. The host device thereby sends 48-bit commands and receives responses. The card can signal that a response will be delayed, but the host device can abort the dialogue.

Through issuing various commands, the host device can:

Determine the type, memory capacity, and capabilities of the SD card.

Command the card to use a different voltage, different clock speed, or advanced electrical interface

Prepare the card to receive a block to write to the flash memory, or read and reply with the contents of a specified block.

The command interface is an extension of the MultiMediaCard (MMC) interface. SD cards dropped support for some of the commands in the MMC protocol, but added commands related to copy protection. By using only commands supported by both standards until determining the type of card inserted, a host device can accommodate both SD and MMC cards.

 

Electrical interface

All SD card families initially use a 3.3-volt electrical interface. On command, SDHC and SDXC cards can switch to 1.8 V operation.

At initial power-up or card insertion, the host device selects either the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus or the one-bit SD bus by the voltage level present on Pin 1. Thereafter, the host device may issue a command to switch to the four-bit SD bus interface, if the SD card supports it. For various card types, support for the four-bit SD bus is either optional or mandatory.

After determining that the SD card supports it, the host device can also command the SD card to switch to a higher transfer speed. Until determining the card’s capabilities, the host device should not use a clock speed faster than 400kHz. SD cards other than SDIO have a “Default Speed” clock rate of 25MHz. The host device is not required to use the maximum clock speed that the card supports. It may operate at less than the maximum clock speed to conserve power. Between commands, the host device can stop the clock entirely.

 

Achieving higher card speeds

The SD specification defines four-bit-wide transfers. (The MMC specification supports this and defines an eight-bit-wide mode; MMC cards with extended bits were not accepted by the market. Prove popular in e.MMC) Transferring several bits on each clock pulse improves the card speed. Advanced SD families have also improved speed by offering faster clock frequencies and double data rate DDR in a high-speed differential interface (UHS-II).

 

File systems

 Like other types of flash memory card, an SD card of any SD family is a block-addressable storage device, in which the host device can read or write fixed-size blocks by specifying their block number. (LBA/SECTOR)

 

MBR and FAT

Most SD cards ship preformatted with one or more MBR partitions, where the first or only partition contains a file system. This lets them operate like the hard disk of a personal computer. Per the SD card specification, an SD card is formatted with MBR and the following file system:

 

For SDSC cards:

Capacity of less than 32,680 logical sectors (smaller than 16 MB): FAT12 with partition type 01h.

Capacity of 32,680 to 65,535 logical sectors (between 16MB and 32MB): FAT16 with partition type 04h.

Capacity of at least 65,536 logical sectors (larger than 32MB): FAT16B with partition type 06h.

 

For SDHC cards:

Capacity of less than 16,450,560 logical sectors (smaller than 7.8 GB): FAT32 with partition type 0Bh.

Capacity of at least 16,450,560 logical sectors (larger than 7.8 GB): FAT32 with partition type 0Ch.

 

For SDXC cards:

exFAT with partition type 07h – Window proprietary.

 

Most consumer products that take an SD card expect that it is partitioned and formatted in this way. Universal support for FAT12, FAT16, FAT16B, and FAT32 allows the use of SDSC and SDHC cards on most host computers with a compatible SD reader, to present the user with the familiar method of named files in a hierarchical directory tree.

On such SD cards, standard utility programs such as Mac OS X’s “Disk Utility” or Windows’ SCANDISK can be used to repair a corrupted filing system and sometimes recover deleted files. Defragmentation tools for FAT file systems may be used on such cards. The resulting consolidation of files may provide a marginal improvement in the time required to read or write the file,[104] but not an improvement comparable to defragmentation of hard drives, where storing a file in multiple fragments requires additional physical, and relatively slow, movement of a drive head. Moreover, defragmentation performs writes to the SD card that count against the card’s rated lifespan.

When reformatting an SD card with a capacity of at least 32MB (65536 logical sectors or more), but not more than 2GB, FAT16B with partition type 06 hours is recommended if the card is for a consumer device. (FAT16B is also an option for 4GB cards, but it requires the use of 64k clusters, which are not widely supported). FAT16B does not support cards above 4GB at all.

The SDXC specification mandates the use of Microsoft’s proprietary exFAT file system, which is supported only by some proprietary operating systems.

Because the host views the SD card as a block storage device, the card does not require MBR partitions or any specific file system. The card can be reformatted to use any file system the operating system supports. For example:

Under Windows, SD cards can be formatted using NTFS and, on later versions, exFAT.

Under macOS, SD cards can be partitioned as GUID devices and formatted with either HFS Plus or APFS file systems or still use exFAT.

Under Unix-like operating systems such as Linux or FreeBSD, SD cards can be formatted using the UFS, Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, btrfs, HFS Plus, Reiser FS or F2FS file system. Additionally, under Linux, HFS Plus file systems may be accessed for read/write if the “hfsplus” package is installed, and partitioned and formatted if “hfsprogs” is installed. (These package names are correct under Debian, Ubuntu etc., but may differ on other Linux distributions.)

Any recent version of the above can format SD cards using the UDF file system.

Additionally, as with live USB flash drives, an SD card can have an operating system installed on it. Computers that can boot from an SD card (either using a USB adapter or inserted into the computer’s flash media reader) instead of the hard disk drive may thereby be able to recover from a corrupted hard disk drive. Such an SD card can be write-locked to preserve the system’s integrity.

The SD Standard allows usage of only the above-mentioned Microsoft FAT file systems and any card produced in the market shall be preloaded with the related standard file system upon its delivery to the market. If any application or user re-formats the card with a non-standard file system the proper operation of the card, including interoperability, cannot be assured.

 

Power Consumption

The power consumption of SD cards varies by its speed mode, manufacturer and model.

During transfer, it may be in the range of (20–100 mA at a supply voltage of 3.3 V).

Modern UHS-II cards can consume up to 2.88 W, if the host device supports bus speed mode SDR104 or UHS-II. Minimum power consumption in the case of a UHS-II host is 0.72 W.

Like most memory card formats, SD is covered by numerous patents and trademarks. Royalties for SD card licensees are imposed for manufacture and sale of memory cards and host adapters (US$1,000/year plus membership at US$1,500/year), but SDIO cards can be made without royalties.

Early versions of the SD specification were available only after agreeing to a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) that prohibited development of an open source driver. However, the system was eventually reverse-engineered, and free software drivers provided access to SD cards that did not use DRM. Since then, the SDA has provided a simplified version of the specification under a less restrictive license. Although most open-source drivers were written before this, it has helped to solve compatibility issues.

In 2006, the SDA released a simplified version of the specification of the host controller interface (as opposed to the specification of SD cards) and later also for the physical layer, ASSD extensions, SDIO, and SDIO Bluetooth Type-A, under a disclaimers agreement. [116] Again, most of the information had already been discovered and Linux had a fully free driver for it. Still, building a chip conforming to this specification caused the One Laptop per Child project to claim “the first truly Open Source SD implementation, with no need to obtain an SDI license or sign NDAs to create SD drivers or applications.”

The proprietary nature of the complete SD specification affects embedded systems, laptop computers, and some desktop computers; many desktop computers do not have card slots, instead using USB-based card readers if necessary. These card readers present a standard USB mass storage interface to memory cards, thus separating the operating system from the details of the underlying SD interface. However, embedded systems (such as portable music players) usually gain direct access to SD cards and thus need complete programming information. Desktop card readers are themselves embedded systems; their manufacturers have usually paid the SDA for complete access to the SD specifications. Many notebook computers now include SD card readers not based on USB; device drivers for these essentially gain direct access to the SD card, as do embedded systems.

The SPI-bus interface mode is the only type that does not require a host license for accessing SD cards.

 

Comparison to other flash memory formats

Size comparison of various flash cards: SD, CompactFlash, MMC, xD

Overall, SD is less open than CompactFlash or USB flash memory drives. Those open standards can be implemented without paying for licensing, royalties, or documentation. (CompactFlash and USB flash drives may require licensing fees for the use of the SDA’s trademarked logos.)

However, SD is much more open than Memory Stick, for which no public documentation nor any documented legacy implementation is available. All SD cards can be accessed freely using the well-documented SPI bus.

 

 Comparison of technical features of CF and SD cards

From the above information, densities of both CF and SD cards are roughly similar. CF cards under CF 6.0, using UDMA 7 are very fast at 145 MB/S. SDHC cards using UHS II can produce speeds of 312MB/S. This using 2 low voltage differential lanes on added pins.

Many embedded systems are moving to SDHC, or Embedded MMC and SD. e.MMC uses custom modules that are customer specific. There are or types of connectors that are being used by router companies, and are becoming popular. Modules are favored over soldered parts, since they can be formatted outside the embedded platform (Important for production), and swapped out in an easier manner.

Having said that we believe CF connected with a SATA to PATA bridge such as the Marvel, will remain popular. CPUs all have SATA ports and device drivers are proven.

Please contact Delkin Devices and we’ll answer any technical questions you may have about Industrial CF or Industrial SD cards.

 

Contact

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Article Contributor:

Carmine C. Cupani, MSEE

CTech Electronics LLC

 

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Exploring the Features of 2.5 SSD SATA

  A prevalent design for a solid state drive (SSD) is a 2.5 SSD with...

Utility+ msata
Spotlight on the SATA 3 Interface Card

  SATA 3 interface cards are storage cards that connect to the motherboard using SATA...

Delkin Devices Industrial
Why You Should Get Storage from a Leading Flash Memory Manufacturer

  When you purchase flash memory for an industrial application, there is little room for...

Delkin Devices Industrial eMMC
Details on eMMC Functionality and Partitioning

  Embedded multi-media controllers, or eMMCs, are embedded systems that contain a flash memory controller...

Industrial CF Cards in Thermostats for Food Grade Freezers

  Food grade freezers have to meet high safety standards to ensure that the foods...

Technical Success Story: Industrial and Commercial Flash Storage

  Commercial flash storage products are extremely common and widely available. For this reason, many...

Delkin S330 SATA SSD
What Is Solid State Flash Storage?

  Solid state flash storage is a version of data storage used in SSDs. SSD...

SD, D300 Series, 8GB SLC Industrial
Industrial SD Card Price Considerations

  For engineers and designers who are looking for industrial storage, price considerations always come...

FAQs about Flash Based Memory

  If you’re considering data storage options for your application, then you have certainly encountered...

Finding the Right Memory Solution for Your Industrial Application

  When it comes to finding memory for an industrial application, there is no such...

SE32ANZ49-3B000-3 - SD - SD - 32GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
What Is a High Endurance SD Card?

  SD cards are used across many different applications, but they are particularly popular in...

Delkin Devices Utility SSD (1.8” / 2.5” / mSATA)
SSD Utility Basics Explained

  SSD Utility is an integrated management software program found in some solid state drives,...

3D MLC NAND Flash Explained

  Flash memory is a widely used technology that utilizes an electronic transistor to program...

Utility+ msata
Answers to Common Questions about SSD mSATA

  SSD mSATA designs are widely used in portable devices in which space is at...

Delkin Devices Utility SSD (1.8” / 2.5” / mSATA)
Get the Facts about Flash SSD Drive Options

  A flash SSD drive is the standard form of storage used in most consumer...

D Flash Rod Connecting Layers Graphic
3D NAND vs. MLC

  For NAND Flash-based SSDs, or solid state drives, there is a constant push to...

SD Card Pins
Spotlight on Conformal Coating Benefits

  Circuit boards, memory cards, SSDs, and other components of electronic devices are subject to...

Delkin Devices mSATA
Comparing the mSATA vs. SATA Connector

  If you’re shopping for a solid state drive, or SSD, then you have probably...

Delkin Devices SlimSATA
What Are the Features of Slim SATA?

  In order to accommodate devices that are increasingly thin, the Slim SATA design was...

How Is Industrial microSD Used in Clinical Diagnostics Applications?

  Clinical diagnostics are critical to meeting patient needs. Without the appropriate diagnostics, providers will...

SSD NAND Flash- Wear Leveling and Maximizing SSD Life

  This paper will describe NAND Flash life as used in Solid State Storage Devices.   SOLID...

Technical Success Story: SMART Technology Helped Customer Manage Constant P/E Cycles

  OEMs often find themselves in a situation in which they need to balance price...

Utility
SSD Wear Leveling Count Explained

  Solid-state drives (SSDs) that have flash memory have a finite lifespan. The length of...

Aerospace Applications Embedded Systems

  There is a long list of aerospace applications embedded systems, and the list is...

eUSB- MY32TNJ7A-RA000-D - USB - Embedded USB Module - 32GB - SLC
FAQs about Embedded Products

  Embedded products play a central role in commercial and industrial applications in a large...

Delkin Devices Controls Automation
Flash Memory in Industrial Applications

  Industrial applications require the highest available levels of data security and memory operations. Because...

Understanding Embedded Memory Systems
Understanding Product Reliability Specification and Performance Factors

  When it comes to products that contain flash memory, a concern that is often...

Infotainment in Car
Finding the Right Automotive Memory Solution

  Embedded memory solutions are gaining in importance in the automotive industry. As cars become...

Facts about Flash Memory Durability

  From flash drives to embedded flash storage, one of the leading questions that people...

Industrial USB - Delkin Devices
Rugged USB Drives Explained

  USB drives are among the most widely used and recognized storage devices on the...

cf_c500series
Answering Questions about Compact Flash Memory Cards

  Compact Flash memory cards, also called CompactFlash, have a long history of providing reliable...

Power Applications Embedded Systems: What You Need to Know

  Embedded systems used in power applications cannot risk being unreliable. Whether the power supply...

Car Infotainment Application
Understanding Industrial Embedded Systems

  Industrial embedded systems are used in a variety of critical devices and applications. They...

eMMC
Answering Questions on Embedded Multi-Media Controller, or eMMC

  Embedded multi-media controller, or eMMC, is a simple, low-power storage solution that contains three...

Delkin Devices mSATA
Features of 128GB mSATA

  If you need a solid state drive (SSD) with a small form factor, then...

Delkin Devices Industrial USB Flash Drive
FAQs about Rugged USB Flash Drive Technology

  USB flash drives are among the most familiar and widely used forms of storage...

Looking Beyond Specifications, Reviewing Specifications
A Look at Secure Digital Card Specifications

  Secure Digital card specifications are set by the Secure Digital Association. This is done...

What Is a NAND Technology SSD?

  In years past, the only drive industrial users and consumers wanted to see in...

Person on laptop evaluating SMART data
What Are the Benefits of Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology?

  Self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology, or SMART, allows users to monitor the operations of...

UTILITY 2.5” SSD
What Is a Rugged Solid State Drive?

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, have revolutionized data storage. Although hard disk drives (HDDs)...

Comparing M.2 SATA vs. mSATA

  M.2 SATA and mSATA are both popular in small, thin devices that require board-level...

SE32ANZ49-3B000-3 - SD - SD - 32GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
Choosing the Best Industrial SD Card

  Industrial SD cards are popular with OEMs and designers because of their broad compatibility...

The Use of Commercial MLC SD Cards in Battery Management Systems (BMS)

  General This paper will describe the use of SD Cards in Battery Management Systems (BMS)....

Industrial CF Cards Used in Broadcast Equipment and Drive Recorders

  Industrial CF cards provide powerful storage in a familiar and highly compatible format. CF...

Parnters
Technical Success Story: Avoiding Failures in the Field with a Controlled BOM

  Background: A customer contacted Delkin when the SD cards he had been purchasing from...

Interfaces Form Factors
Benefits of Secure Erase Flash Storage Technology

  Industrial applications frequently store data that are sensitive and require careful management. When it...

S325TLLM7B-C1000-3 - SD - microSD - 256MB - SLC | Delkin Industrial
Focus on Extended Temperature SLC Storage

  Extended temperature SLC storage is in high demand by industrial users who need the...

Person on laptop evaluating SMART data
FAQs about Commercial Grade Storage

Software Programming Web Development Concept   If you are searching for embedded flash storage solutions, then...

Delkin Devices PCMCIA
Taking a Closer Look at the Industrial PCMCIA Card

  Industrial PCMCIA cards are not as common as they once were, but they can...

DE2TAPX7R-35000-2 - SATA - 2.5" SSD - 2TB - MLC
SSD SATA III Features

  SSD SATA III is a solid state drive that uses the SATA III standard,...

Delkin CFexpress
CFexpress 101

  Industrial CFexpress is a high-speed flash storage device that is removable and able to...

S325TLLM7B-C1000-3 - SD - microSD - 256MB - SLC | Delkin Industrial
What Are Smart MicroSD Cards?

  MicroSD cards, or microSDs, are the smallest form of SD cards available. They are...

Industrial M.2 SSD
A Look at the Benefits of Extended Temperature SSD

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, are now the standard drive format used in a...

Life Cycle Management
FAQs about Product Life Cycle Management

  When it comes to developing an application and maximizing your return on it, product...

What Is Intelligent Power Consumption and Why Does It Matter?

  For embedded storage devices, power consumption is a key concern. Drawing a significant amount...

Blue Blocks
Why Secure Erase Matters in Industrial Storage

  Industrial flash storage has revolutionized computing. Flash drives offer greater reliability than hard drives,...

Highlighting the Importance of Conformal Coating

  Flash memory cards contain complex circuitry and components. These sensitive systems are often exposed...

SE32ANZ49-3B000-3 - SD - SD - 32GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
Comparing Industrial and Utility Cards

  When choosing embedded flash memory for an application, the grade of the card is...

Flash Storage Deconstructed- Improve Write Life with Simple Changes

  Anatomy of a Flash Storage Device To the casual user, a FLASH card seems like...

Technical Success Story: Solving SD Card Customization Issues

  Background: A frequent Delkin SD card customer needed to expand the use and data...

Examining SLC SD in Electrocardiography, Endoscopes, and Other Medical Devices

  In modern medical equipment, embedded storage is a necessity. It is used for both...

DE2TAPX7R-35000-2 - SATA - 2.5" SSD - 2TB - MLC
What Are Solid State Memory Drives?

  Solid state memory drives, often referred to as solid state drives, or SSDs, are...

OEM Sales Solutions

  OEM sales play a critical role in many different consumer and industrial applications and...

SE16ANZ49-1B000-3 - SD - SD - 16GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
SD Card Advice V2 for Zynq and Zynq UltraScale+ SoC Products

  Check out this helpful information on SD . Below is a link to download...

Extended Life Cycle Delkin Devices
The Importance of ELC Products for Industrial Applications

  Extended life cycle, or ELC, products are essential components of many industrial applications. With...

Understanding Types of Form Factors

  If you’ve been shopping for embedded storage, a term you are likely to have...

Contact
Choosing Solid State Storage Companies

  Solid state storage is the preferred form of storage for industrial applications, but where...

Infotainment Applications in Embedded Systems – Changing the Way We Travel

  Embedded systems have had a major impact on a long list of industries. In...

S330-225-SATA-SSD
Taking a Closer Look at SSD Utility Systems

  SSD utility systems are available in a variety of capacities and in both commercial...

Choosing a microSD Memory Supplier

  The microSD memory card, sometimes called micro SD, is a popular, high-endurance flash storage...

Transportation_Truck-Ship-Airplane
Finding Storage Solutions for Industrial Applications

  Whether they’re helping to provide access to critical patient records for doctors in emergency...

Write Protect Digital Lock
Encrypted SSD Explained

  If you are storing sensitive data, or even if you just want the knowledge...

Using Embedded Systems in Healthcare

  An embedded system is part of a larger operating system that is designed to...

Why Delkin Is a Leading Flash Memory Manufacturer

When you need flash memory for an industrial application, the flash memory manufacturer you...

Solving Medical Data Storage Issues

  With so many medical providers switching from paper records to electronic ones, medical data...

UTILITY mSATA SSD
Understanding SATA Embedded SSDs

  SATA embedded SSDs are popular for use as boot drives and storage in a...

SE51TFLHL-C1000-D
Picking the Best Industrial SD Card for Your Needs

  Industrial SD cards offer embedded storage solutions for industrial devices that require high levels...

Delkin Devices SlimSATA
What Is Industrial Slim SATA?

  Today’s devices are becoming increasingly small and increasingly slim. As such, SSDs have had...

The Effects of Radiation on NAND Flash Based Devices

  General  This article describes the effects of radiation on NAND FLASH devices and covers possible...

Industrial M.2 SSD
Taking a Closer Look at the M.2 SATA Connector

  As solid state drives, or SSDs, replaced hard disk drives (HDDs) as the most...

FAQs about M.2 2280

  M.2 2280 SSDs are a specific size of the M.2 controller format. When you...

Industrial CompactFlash
Replacing STEC Compact Flash Products

  STEC was once a major player in the OEM marketplace, but since the company...

Delkin S330 SATA SSD
Spotlight on SATA SSD Module Options for Industrial Applications

  SATA is a popular SSD choice for industrial embedded systems that need storage for...

S364APG5S-U3000-3 - SD - microSD - 64GB - MLC
A Look at the Features of Industrial Grade microSD Card Designs

  microSD cards offer high-endurance NAND flash storage in a small form factor that is...

Storage Insights #4 – NAND Flash Based SSD Drives and the Flash Controller

Click below to read the new Delkin Storage Insights post on the element14 Community...

Technical Success Stories: Host Usage and Industrial SD Cards

  Background Delkin is frequently contacted by customers who are trying to select the best SD...

Comparing Commercial Grade and Industrial Grade Flash Memory

  For OEMs and engineers looking for embedded flash memory solutions, one issue that is...

DE2TAPX7R-35000-2 - SATA - 2.5" SSD - 2TB - MLC
Comparing 2.5” SATA II to Other SATA Versions

  SATA SSDs have long been popular solutions for industrial applications. The 2.5” SATA II...

Industrial microSD Used in Digital Tachometers

  A tachometer calculates the revolutions per minute (RPM), of an object that spins. Most...

Digital Gaming Applications
Gaming Applications Embedded Systems: A Guide for OEMs

  Embedded computer systems are a constant part of everyday life, found in everything from...

Understanding Controls Applications Embedded Systems

  When you choose embedded controls, it is always necessary to consider the application with...

Delkin continuously invests in DVT—Design Verification Testing—and ORT—Ongoing Reliability Testing
Facts You Need to Know about Reliability in Testing

  Reliability in testing is an important part of the process when determining the right...

Power Fail
FAQs about Low Power Flash Drive Technology

  Power consumption is a factor that every OEM or engineer has to consider when...

Life Cycle Management
Taking a Closer Look at NAND Flash Data Retention Time

  When choosing a NAND flash storage device, many OEMs focus on the number of...

What Is NAND Flash Memory?

  NAND flash memory is the data storage format that is often found in solid...

pSLC

  pSLC stands for pseudo-SLC. This form of NAND flash technology uses MLC-style cells to...

The Industrial NAND Flash Based SSD Used in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

  This post will describe the use and proper design of Industrial Grade NAND Flash...

Industrial SATA - Delkin Devices
Solid State Storage Solutions Explained

  Solid state storage solutions, or SSS, are forms of electronic storage that offer alternatives...

Technical Success Stories: Solving SD Card Application Software Optimization

  A customer approached Delkin for assistance after their embedded computing device provided incomplete data due...

Using uSD MLC Cards for Seismic Sensors

  Seismic sensors are critical safety devices in a wide range of industries. They monitor...

eMMC Bal Side
Spotlight on eMMC 153 Ball Designs

  If you are looking for an industrial grade CPU and flash solution for your...

UTILITY SD
High Endurance SD Card Facts

  A high endurance SD card is the ultimate in dependability for industrial applications. This...

Understanding the SD Card Interface

  Secure Digital cards, or SD cards, are widely used in consumer and industrial markets....

Industrial M.2 SSD
Questions about the M.2 SATA Connector

  An ongoing concern that users have had about solid state drives, or SSDs, is...

Industrial M.2 SSD
A Look at SATA Embedded SSDs

  SATA Embedded SSDs are components that operate inside a larger system to perform a...

Delkin Devices Industrial USB Flash Drive
USB NAND Flash Overview

  USB drives may be the most widely recognized storage devices on the market. They...

Get the Facts about Flash Memory Storage Life

  One question that comes up time and again when it comes to flash memory...

Delkin Devices 2.5” SATA SSD
Understanding the Differences Between a Flash SSD Drive and a Hard Drive

  Flash SSD drives are quickly becoming the go-to technology in a variety of devices,...

Encryption and Security Development in Solid State Storage Devices (SSD)

  General This article will describe the  use of Encryption and Security measures in Sold State...

Delkin Devices Toys for Tots 2016
Delkin Devices Holding 12th Annual Toys for Tots Drive

Click here for the article in the San Diego Union Tribune Click here for more...

Delkin S330 SATA SSD
A SATA Overview for OEMs

  The Serial ATA interface, or SATA, is an interface that connects storage devices and...

S316MMZ6T-U1000-4 - SD - microSD - 16GB - SLC
Comparing pSLC and SLC

  If you have researched NAND flash storage recently, you may have encountered terms like...

Utility+ msata
Spotlight on 128GB mSATA Features

  The introduction of Mini-SATA, or mSATA, to the market in 2009 was a game-changer...

UTILITY SD
Industrial SD Card 101

  An industrial SD card is a NAND flash-based memory card that are ideal for...

Person on laptop evaluating SMART data
SMART Data SSD Reporting: What It Is and How to Read It

  SMART data reporting is the key to monitoring the performance of your SSD and...

Answering Questions about 32GB mSATA

  mSATA SSDs are a form of solid state drive (SSD) that follows the design...

Utility
What You Need to Know about High Capacity Flash Drive Options

  The demand for ever-increasing amounts of data storage means that the need for a...

eUSB- Delkin Devices USB Embedded Drive
Understanding Embedded Cards

  Embedded cards are used in embedded systems to perform specific functions. For example, embedded...

Delkin Devices Industrial USB Flash Drive
Wear Leveling USB Flash Drive Basics

  USB flash drives are one of the most widely recognized storage devices for both...

Delkin Devices mSATA
FAQs about the Largest mSATA Drive on the Market

  Delkin’s focus is on providing rugged storage solutions for industrial users, so while we...

Delkin Flash Storage for Industrial Applications
Industrial SATA for Factory Automation

  In today’s factory settings, automation is non-negotiable. Plants are adding new automation tools constantly,...

SD, D300 Series, 16GB SLC Industrial
Technical Success Stories: SLC SD Card- Finding the Right Solution

  As flash technology evolves, it is becoming increasingly challenging to compare memory devices. At...

What Are Industrial Grade Products?

  If you’re looking for NAND flash memory products, then you have likely encountered both...

S364APG5S-U3000-3 - SD - microSD - 64GB - MLC
Questions Answered about Industrial MLC microSD

  Industrial MLC microSD cards combine the benefits of MLC microSD technology with features that...

Industrial SD - Delkin Devices
Secure Digital Card Overview

  If you’ve ever looked into options for embedded flash memory, then you are likely...

SLC vs. MLC Life Span: What You Need to Know

  One of the key issues developers and OEMs have to consider when they are...

Delkin continuously invests in DVT—Design Verification Testing—and ORT—Ongoing Reliability Testing
SSD Reliability Test: How Long Do SSDs Last?

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, are becoming as ubiquitous now as hard disk drives,...

Explaining NAND Flash Memory

  NAND flash memory is at the core of most embedded storage devices and SSDs....

Collaboration- Putting together pieces of the puzzle
Understanding the Differences Between Commercial Grade and Industrial Grade Memory

  If you are shopping for flash storage devices, then you will quickly realize that...

BE64MGMZZ-XN000-D - SATA - CFast - 64GB - SLC
A Look at the Features of the Industrial Grade CFast Card

  An industrial grade CFast card combines the advantages of Compact Flash technology with the...

Industrial M.2 SSD
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about M-2 SSD

  M-2 SSDs are designed specifically for use in devices that require a very small...

eUSBDelkin Devices Embedded USB
Using the Industrial Grade 10-Pin USB DOM

   If you have used a desktop, laptop, smartphone, or other computing device in the...

Delkin Devices Industrial eMMC
What Is eMMC?

  eMMC stands for embedded MultiMediaCard. It refers to an embedded technology in which both...

Facts about Flash Storage

  Flash storage is a form of memory that is found in an enormous array...

Exploring the Basics of SATA Flash

  SATA is the most widely used interface for solid state drives, or SSDs, today....

What is a Controlled BOM? How Does It Work?

  What is a Controlled BOM (Bill of Materials) Delkin manufactures cards for the complete spectrum...

Understanding CompactFlash Card Durability

  CompactFlash is a form of NAND flash memory that is found in a wide...

Digital Signage
Digital Signage Applications’ Embedded Systems

  In the past, digital signage applications have relied on standard PC platforms in order...

Electrical Engineer Working on Host Application
Electronic Coating 101

  The electronic circuit and other components inside your SSDs and flash memory devices are...

What Is a Ruggedized SSD?

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, were once used exclusively for rugged operating conditions. However,...

Understanding Embedded Memory Systems
Answering Questions about NAND Memory Manufacturers

  When you’re choosing a NAND industrial flash storage device, the manufacturer is likely to...

SLC SATA Basics

  SLC SATA is one of the most reliable flash storage options available for industrial...

Industrial Flash Storage Customization
Custom SD Cards Explained

  SD cards are a recognized format for storage for a variety of commercial and...

UTILITY SD
How Do Wear Leveling SD Cards Work?

  SD cards are a popular choice for industrial grade memory. These NAND flash memory...

FAQs about Flash Based SSDs

  Flash based SSDs are ubiquitous in industrial applications. They take advantage of the reliability...

Embedded Computing
What Are Embedded Computing Systems?

  Embedded computing systems are used every day, yet they are often overlooked and misunderstood....

Delkin Industrial Flash Storage for Printing Applications
Industry Insights: SLC SD for Industrial Multi-function Printers

  Industrial multi-function printers offer high-speed functionality in environments that demand flawless performance. For industrial...