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SATA (Serial ATA) Technical Guide

 Delkin S330 SATA SSD

SATA

Serial ATA was introduced in 2003. It evolved from PATA, and shortly after its introduction replaced PATA in PCs and other systems.

SATA SSD has several advantages over the Parallel PATA hard drives developed in the 1980s. SATA cables are thinner, more flexible and smaller than the ribbon cables required for conventional PATA hard drives.

Setting SATA Controller Modes

 Serial ATA hard drives connect to a computer’s motherboard via SATA Controller hardware that manages the flow of data. Putting SATA in IDE mode means the hard drive is recognized as a PATA device — a situation that provides better compatibility with older hardware, but comes with the tradeoff of lower performance.

Setting a SATA controller to Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) offers higher performance than IDE mode, and enables features such as Hot Swapping on SATA drives. The redundant array of independent disk (RAID) mode supports both AHCI functions and RAID data protection features.

Technical Differences Between SATA and PATA

The SATA SSD transport layer differs from PATA drives, in which data bits are delivered simultaneously across a 40/80 -pin-wide ribbon cable. PATA is Half Duplex, meaning transmit and receive cannot occur at the same time. As its name suggests, a Serial ATA drive transfers data in serial fashion. Data is moved one bit at a time between a SATA drive and its host, using a seven-pin data cable and 15-pin power cable. The SATA cable results in a higher signaling rate, which corresponds to faster throughput of data. SATA is full duplex, differential, with a transmit pair and receive pair.

Standard SATA connector, data segment

Pin #MatingFunction
11stGround
22ndA+ (transmit)
32ndA− (transmit)
41stGround
52ndB− (receive)
62ndB+ (receive)
71stGround
Coding notch

 

The SATA standard defines a data cable with seven conductors (three grounds and four active data lines in two pairs) and 8 mm wide wafer connectors on each end. SATA cables can have lengths up to (3.3 ft.), and connect one motherboard socket to one hard drive. PATA ribbon cables, in comparison, connect one motherboard socket to one or two hard drives, carry either 40 or 80 wires, and are limited to 18 in length by the PATA specification. However, cables up to 35 in are readily available. Thus, SATA connectors and cables are easier to fit in closed spaces and reduce obstructions to air flow cooling. Although they are more susceptible to accidental unplugging and breakage than PATA, users can purchase cables that have a locking feature, whereby a small (usually metal) spring holds the plug in the socket. This rarely an issue though.

SATA connectors may be straight, right-angled, or left angled. Angled connectors allow lower-profile connections. Right-angled (also called 90-degree) connectors lead the cable immediately away from the drive, on the circuit-board side. Left-angled (also called 270-degree) connectors lead the cable across the drive towards its top.

One of the problems associated with the transmission of data at high speed over electrical connections is described as noise (Common mode and differential), which is due to electrical coupling between data circuits and other circuits. As a result, the data circuits can both affect other circuits and be affected by them. Designers use a number of techniques to reduce the undesirable effects of such unintentional coupling. One such technique used in SATA links is differential signaling. This is an enhancement over PATA, which uses single ended. The use of fully shielded twin-ax conductors, with multiple ground connections, for each differential pair improves isolation between the channels and reduces the chances of lost data in difficult electrical environments.

Differential transmission has a very high common mode rejection. Thus, common mode noise is cancelled. This allow longer cable runs in noisy environments.

Power Connectors

Standard Connector

Standard connector, power segment

Pin #MatingFunction
Coding notch
13rd3.3 V Power
23rd
32ndEnter/exit Power Disable (PWDIS) mode
(3.3 V Power, Pre-charge prior to SATA 3.3)
41stGround
52nd
62nd
72nd5 V Power, Pre-charge
83rd5 V Power
93rd
102ndGround
113rdStaggered Spin Up/activity
121stGround
132nd12 V Power, Pre-charge
143rd12 V Power
153rd

 

SATA specifies a different power connector than the four-pin used on PATA device. It is a wafer-type connector, like the SATA data connector, but much wider (fifteen pins versus seven) to avoid confusion between the two. Some early SATA drives included the four-pin Molex power connector together with the new fifteen-pin connector, but most SATA drives now have only the latter.

The new SATA power connector contains many more pins for several reasons:

  • 3V is supplied along with the traditional 5V and 12V supplies. However, very few drives actually use it, so they may be powered from a four-pin Molex connector with an adapter.
  • Pin 3 in SATA revision 3.3 has been redefined as PWDIS and is used to enter and exit the POWER DISABLE mode for compatibility with SAS specification. If Pin 3 is driven HIGH (2.1–3.6 V max), power to the drive circuitry is disabled. Drives with this feature do not power up in systems designed to SATA revision 3.1 or earlier. This is because Pin 3 driven HIGH prevents the drive from powering up.
  • To reduce impedance and increase current capability, each voltage is supplied by three pins in parallel, though one pin in each group is intended for pre-charging (see below). Each pin should be able to carry 1.5 A.
  • Five parallel pins provide a low-impedance ground connection.
  • Two ground pins and one pin for each supplied voltage support hot plug pre-charging. Ground pins 4 and 12 in a hot-swap cable are the longest, so they make contact first when the connectors are mated. Drive power connector pins 3, 7, and 13 are longer than the others, so they make contact next. Drives use them to charge its internal bypass capacitors through current-limiting resistances. Finally, the remaining power pins make contact, bypassing the resistances and providing a low-impedance source of each voltage. This two-step mating process avoids glitches to other loads and possible arcing or erosion of the SATA power-connector contacts.
  • Pin 11 can function if needed or can be left open. It is an open-collector signal, which may be pulled down by the connector or the drive. If pulled down at the connector (as it is on most cable-style SATA power connectors), the drive spins up as soon as power is applied. If left floating, the drive waits until it is spoken to. This prevents many drives from spinning up simultaneously, which might draw too much power. The pin is also pulled low by the drive to indicate drive activity. This may be used to give feedback to the user through an led.

Passive adapters are available that convert a four-pin PATA power connector to a SATA power connector, providing the 5V and 12V lines available on the Molex connector, but not 3.3 V. There are also four-pin Molex-to-SATA power adapters that include electronics to additionally provide the 3.3 V power supply. However, most drives do not use the 3.3 V power line.

 Slimline Connector

Slimline connector, power segment

Pin #MatingFunction
 —Coding notch
13rdDevice presence
22nd5 V Power
32nd
42ndManufacturing diagnostic
51stGround
61st

 

SATA 2.6 is the first revision that defined the slimline connector, intended for smaller form-factors such as notebook optical drives. Pin 1 of the slimline signal connector, denoting device presence, is shorter than the others to allow hot-swapping. The slimline signal connector is identical and compatible with the standard version, while the power connector is reduced to six pins so it supplies only +5 V, and not +12V or +3.3V.

Low-cost adapters exist to convert from standard SATA to slimline SATA.

SATA Functional Description

The SATA specification defines three distinct protocol layers: physical, link, and transport.

Physical Layer

The physical layer defines SATA’s electrical and physical characteristics (such as cable dimensions and parasitics, driver voltage level and receiver operating range), as well as the physical coding subsystem (bit-level encoding, device detection on the wire, and link initialization).

Physical transmission uses differential signaling. The SATA PHY contains a transmit pair and receive pair. When the SATA-link is not in use, the transmitter allows the transmit pins to float to their common-mode voltage level. When the SATA-link is either active or in the link-initialization phase, the transmitter drives the transmit pins at the specified differential voltage (1.5V in SATA/I).

SATA physical coding uses a line encoding system known as 8b/10b This scheme serves multiple functions required to sustain a differential serial link. First, the stream contains necessary synchronization information that allows the SATA host/drive to extract the clock. Note the SATA link has no clock line. The 8b/10b encoded sequence embeds periodic edge transitions to allow the receiver to achieve bit-alignment without the use of a separately transmitted reference clock waveform. The sequence also maintains a neutral  bitstream, which lets transmit drivers and receiver inputs be AC Coupled. Generally, the actual SATA signaling is half-duplex, meaning that it can only read or write data at any one time, although Full Duplex operation is physically present.

Also, SATA uses some of the special characters defined in 8b/10b. The PHY layer uses the comma character to maintain symbol-alignment. A specific four-symbol sequence, the ALIGN primitive, is used for clock rate-matching between the two devices on the link. Other special symbols communicate flow control information produced and consumed in the higher layers (link and transport).

Separate point-to-point AC-coupledLVDS) links are used for physical transmission between host and drive.

The Physical layer is responsible for detecting the other SATA/device on a cable, and link initialization. During the link-initialization process, the PHY is responsible for locally generating special out-of-band signals by switching the transmitter between electrical-idle and specific 10b-characters in a defined pattern, negotiating a mutually supported signaling rate (1.5, 3.0, or 6.0 Gbit/s), and finally synchronizing to the far-end device’s PHY-layer data stream. During this time, no data is sent from the link-layer.

Once link-initialization has completed, the link-layer takes over data-transmission, with the PHY providing only the 8b/10b conversion before bit transmission.

Link Layer

After the PHY-layer has established a link, the link layer is responsible for transmission and reception of Frame Information Structures (FISs) over the SATA link. FISs are packets containing control information or payload data. Each packet contains a header (identifying its type), and payload whose contents are dependent on the type. The link layer also manages flow control over the link.

Transport Layer

Layer number three in the serial ATA specification is the transport layer. This layer has the responsibility of acting on the frames and transmitting/receiving the frames in an appropriate sequence. The transport layer handles the assembly and disassembly of FIS structures, which includes, for example, extracting content from register FISs into the task-file and informing the command layer. In an abstract fashion, the transport layer is responsible for creating and encoding FIS structures requested by the command layer, and removing those structures when the frames are received.

When DMA data is to be transmitted and is received from the higher command layer, the transport layer appends the FIS control header to the payload, and informs the link layer to prepare for transmission. The same procedure is performed when data is received, but in reverse order. The link layer signals to the transport layer that there is incoming data available. Once the data is processed by the link layer, the transport layer inspects the FIS header and removes it before forwarding the data to the command layer. In the end, what is left parallels the PATA type register based information.

Topology

SATA topology: host (H), multiplier (M), and device (D)

SATA uses a point-to-point architecture. The physical connection between a controller and a storage device is not shared among other controllers and storage devices. SATA defines multipliers, which allows a single SATA controller port to drive up to fifteen storage devices. The multiplier performs the function of a hub; the controller and each storage device is connected to the hub.

Modern PC systems have SATA controllers built into the motherboard, typically featuring two to eight ports. Additional ports can be installed through add-in SATA host adapters (available in variety of bus-interfaces: USB, PCI, PCIe).

Backward and Forward Compatibility

SATA and PATA

At the hardware interface level, SATA and PATA devices are completely incompatible: they cannot be interconnected without an adapter.

At the application level, SATA devices can be specified to look and act like PATA/IDE devices.

Many motherboards offer a “Legacy Mode” option, which makes SATA drives appear to the OS like PATA drives on a standard controller. This Legacy Mode eases OS installation by not requiring that a specific driver be loaded during setup, but sacrifices support for some (vendor specific) features of SATA. Legacy Mode often if not always disables some of the boards’ PATA or SATA ports, since the standard PATA controller interface supports only four drives. (Often, which ports are disabled is configurable.)

The common heritage of the ATA command set has enabled the proliferation of low-cost PATA to SATA bridge chips. Bridge chips were widely used on PATA drives (before the completion of native SATA drives) as well in standalone converters. When attached to a PATA drive, a device-side converter allows the PATA drive to function as a SATA drive. Host-side converters allow a motherboard PATA port to connect to a SATA drive.

The market has produced powered enclosures for both PATA and SATA drives that interface to the PC through USB, Firewire or eSATA, with the restrictions noted above. PCI cards with a SATA connector exist that allow SATA drives to connect to legacy systems without SATA connectors.

Still in use today, CF cards are connected to CPUs using SATA to PATA bridge chip.

SATA Versions

The designers of SATA standard as an overall goal aimed for backward and forward  with future revisions of the SATA standard. To prevent interoperability problems that could occur when next generation SATA drives are installed on motherboards with standard legacy SATA 1.5 Gbit/s host controllers, many manufacturers have made it easy to switch those newer drives to the previous standard’s mode.

SATA Standards and Revisions

The technical specifications governing Serial ATA device interfaces are authored by the nonprofit SATA-IO industry consortium. The consortium has made several revisions to SATA standards to reflect increased data transfer speeds.

  • SATA Revision 1.0 devices were widely used in personal desktop and office computers, configured from PATA drives joined together in a master/slave configuration. SATA Revision 1 devices topped out at a transfer rate of 1.5 Gb/S or 187.5 MB/S.
  • SATA Revision 2.0 devices doubled the transfer speed to 3.2 Gb/s or 400MB/s with the inclusion of port multipliers, port selectors and improved queuing.
  • SATA Revision 3.0 interfaces support drive transfer rates up to 6 Gbps. SATA Revision 3 drives are back compatible with SATA Revision 1.0 and SATA Revision 2.0 devices, albeit with a lower transfer speed.
  • SATA Revision 3.1 is an intermediate revision that added final design requirements for SATA Universal Storage Module for consumer-based portable storage applications.
  • SATA Revision 3.2 added a specification known as SATA Express (SATAe), which supports simultaneous use of SATA ports and PCI Express (PCIe) lanes.

SATA Design Specs for Flash Storage

In 2009, the SATA-IO consortium unveiled the mSATA for small form solid-state drives SSDs. The M originally stood for mini, but that designation is no longer made and the specification is referred to as mSATA. An mSATA device is a Flash drive that conforms to the SATA-IO protocol specification and is mainly used in laptops,  and other portable computing devices. The mSATA specification maps Serial ATA signals to an internally mounted PCIe card in a computer’s motherboard.

CFast SATA

The CF association defined a SATA version of CF card. This CF card is not compatible with standard CF card slots. Its use is so far not wide spread.

SATA Modes of Operation 

In the PC world, SATA devices and device drivers can operate in either IDE mode, or AHCI mode. Using IDE mode makes the drive appear as a PATA device, at the sacrifice of speed. AHCI mode is by far the mode used.

AHCI

AHCI stands for Advance Host Controller Interface. AHCI is a hardware mechanism that allows software to communicate with Serial ATA (SATA) devices (such as host bus adapters) that are designed to offer features not offered by Parallel ATA (PATA) controllers, such as hot-plugging and native command queuing (NCQ). The specification details a system memory structure for computer hardware vendors in order to transfer data between system memory and the device.

Most SATA controllers can enable AHCI either separately or in conjunction with RAID support. Intel recommends choosing RAID mode on their motherboards (which also enables AHCI) rather than the plain AHCI/SATA mode for maximum flexibility, due to the issues caused when the mode is switched once an operating system has already been installed.

AHCI is fully supported out of the box for Microsoft Windows and the Linux operating system including Apple OS.

Advantages of AHCI

  1. Hot-Plugging
  2. Native Command Queuing (might improve computer/system/hard disk responsiveness, especially in multi-tasking environment, such as in Real-Time embedded applications.

NCQ

In principle, Native Command Queuing is relatively simple. It allows the drive to execute write /read commands that are transmitted randomly in order to optimize the movement of the reading head.

Speed is increased but there is also an impact on power consumption and noise level which is reduced. Of course, applications don’t have to work simultaneously and don’t have to wait for the previous result to send the next command. This of course isn’t always possible. Another possibility in using NCQ is multitasking in the case where you run two very heavy simultaneous drive access applications.

To better explain this situation, imagine an elevator, in which two people enter simultaneously on the ground floor. The first pushes the 12th floor button and the second the 2nd floor. It would be counterproductive to go to the 12th floor and then to the 2nd floor. The principle of NCQ was already in the ATA (PATA)norm since 1997 with TCQ (Tagged Command Queuing). This heavier protocol could sometimes lead to significant performance losses in the case of low loads (no or very little command reorganization to do) and has been integrated in a limited number of controllers. This was not in large use in PATA based systems.

For NCQ to be enabled, it must be supported and turned on in the SATA host bus adapter and in the hard drive itself. The appropriate driver must be loaded into the operating system to enable NCQ on the host bus adapter. All current chipsets support the Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI), which allows a generic driver supplied by the operating system to control them and enable NCQ. In fact, newer mainstream Linux kernels support AHCI natively. The best way to turn AHCI on is though the BIOS. All PCs today have AHCI turned on as the default SATA mode.

All current systems use AHCI. The hot-plugging is a requirement for using RAID. RAID is used in all Servers especially Enterprise.

 

Contact

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Article Contributor:

Carmine C. Cupani, MSEE

CTech Electronics LLC

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  Circuit boards, memory cards, SSDs, and other components of electronic devices are subject to...

Delkin Devices mSATA
Comparing the mSATA vs. SATA Connector

  If you’re shopping for a solid state drive, or SSD, then you have probably...

Delkin Devices SlimSATA
What Are the Features of Slim SATA?

  In order to accommodate devices that are increasingly thin, the Slim SATA design was...

How Is Industrial microSD Used in Clinical Diagnostics Applications?

  Clinical diagnostics are critical to meeting patient needs. Without the appropriate diagnostics, providers will...

SSD NAND Flash- Wear Leveling and Maximizing SSD Life

  This paper will describe NAND Flash life as used in Solid State Storage Devices.   SOLID...

Technical Success Story: SMART Technology Helped Customer Manage Constant P/E Cycles

  OEMs often find themselves in a situation in which they need to balance price...

Utility
SSD Wear Leveling Count Explained

  Solid-state drives (SSDs) that have flash memory have a finite lifespan. The length of...

Aerospace Applications Embedded Systems

  There is a long list of aerospace applications embedded systems, and the list is...

eUSB- MY32TNJ7A-RA000-D - USB - Embedded USB Module - 32GB - SLC
FAQs about Embedded Products

  Embedded products play a central role in commercial and industrial applications in a large...

Delkin Devices Controls Automation
Flash Memory in Industrial Applications

  Industrial applications require the highest available levels of data security and memory operations. Because...

Understanding Embedded Memory Systems
Understanding Product Reliability Specification and Performance Factors

  When it comes to products that contain flash memory, a concern that is often...

Infotainment in Car
Finding the Right Automotive Memory Solution

  Embedded memory solutions are gaining in importance in the automotive industry. As cars become...

Facts about Flash Memory Durability

  From flash drives to embedded flash storage, one of the leading questions that people...

Industrial USB - Delkin Devices
Rugged USB Drives Explained

  USB drives are among the most widely used and recognized storage devices on the...

cf_c500series
Answering Questions about Compact Flash Memory Cards

  Compact Flash memory cards, also called CompactFlash, have a long history of providing reliable...

Power Applications Embedded Systems: What You Need to Know

  Embedded systems used in power applications cannot risk being unreliable. Whether the power supply...

Car Infotainment Application
Understanding Industrial Embedded Systems

  Industrial embedded systems are used in a variety of critical devices and applications. They...

eMMC
Answering Questions on Embedded Multi-Media Controller, or eMMC

  Embedded multi-media controller, or eMMC, is a simple, low-power storage solution that contains three...

Delkin Devices mSATA
Features of 128GB mSATA

  If you need a solid state drive (SSD) with a small form factor, then...

Delkin Devices Industrial USB Flash Drive
FAQs about Rugged USB Flash Drive Technology

  USB flash drives are among the most familiar and widely used forms of storage...

Looking Beyond Specifications, Reviewing Specifications
A Look at Secure Digital Card Specifications

  Secure Digital card specifications are set by the Secure Digital Association. This is done...

What Is a NAND Technology SSD?

  In years past, the only drive industrial users and consumers wanted to see in...

Person on laptop evaluating SMART data
What Are the Benefits of Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology?

  Self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology, or SMART, allows users to monitor the operations of...

UTILITY 2.5” SSD
What Is a Rugged Solid State Drive?

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, have revolutionized data storage. Although hard disk drives (HDDs)...

Comparing M.2 SATA vs. mSATA

  M.2 SATA and mSATA are both popular in small, thin devices that require board-level...

SE32ANZ49-3B000-3 - SD - SD - 32GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
Choosing the Best Industrial SD Card

  Industrial SD cards are popular with OEMs and designers because of their broad compatibility...

The Use of Commercial MLC SD Cards in Battery Management Systems (BMS)

  General This paper will describe the use of SD Cards in Battery Management Systems (BMS)....

Industrial CF Cards Used in Broadcast Equipment and Drive Recorders

  Industrial CF cards provide powerful storage in a familiar and highly compatible format. CF...

Parnters
Technical Success Story: Avoiding Failures in the Field with a Controlled BOM

  Background: A customer contacted Delkin when the SD cards he had been purchasing from...

Interfaces Form Factors
Benefits of Secure Erase Flash Storage Technology

  Industrial applications frequently store data that are sensitive and require careful management. When it...

S325TLLM7B-C1000-3 - SD - microSD - 256MB - SLC | Delkin Industrial
Focus on Extended Temperature SLC Storage

  Extended temperature SLC storage is in high demand by industrial users who need the...

Person on laptop evaluating SMART data
FAQs about Commercial Grade Storage

Software Programming Web Development Concept   If you are searching for embedded flash storage solutions, then...

Delkin Devices PCMCIA
Taking a Closer Look at the Industrial PCMCIA Card

  Industrial PCMCIA cards are not as common as they once were, but they can...

DE2TAPX7R-35000-2 - SATA - 2.5" SSD - 2TB - MLC
SSD SATA III Features

  SSD SATA III is a solid state drive that uses the SATA III standard,...

Delkin CFexpress
CFexpress 101

  Industrial CFexpress is a high-speed flash storage device that is removable and able to...

S325TLLM7B-C1000-3 - SD - microSD - 256MB - SLC | Delkin Industrial
What Are Smart MicroSD Cards?

  MicroSD cards, or microSDs, are the smallest form of SD cards available. They are...

Industrial M.2 SSD
A Look at the Benefits of Extended Temperature SSD

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, are now the standard drive format used in a...

Life Cycle Management
FAQs about Product Life Cycle Management

  When it comes to developing an application and maximizing your return on it, product...

What Is Intelligent Power Consumption and Why Does It Matter?

  For embedded storage devices, power consumption is a key concern. Drawing a significant amount...

Blue Blocks
Why Secure Erase Matters in Industrial Storage

  Industrial flash storage has revolutionized computing. Flash drives offer greater reliability than hard drives,...

Highlighting the Importance of Conformal Coating

  Flash memory cards contain complex circuitry and components. These sensitive systems are often exposed...

SE32ANZ49-3B000-3 - SD - SD - 32GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
Comparing Industrial and Utility Cards

  When choosing embedded flash memory for an application, the grade of the card is...

Flash Storage Deconstructed- Improve Write Life with Simple Changes

  Anatomy of a Flash Storage Device To the casual user, a FLASH card seems like...

Technical Success Story: Solving SD Card Customization Issues

  Background: A frequent Delkin SD card customer needed to expand the use and data...

Examining SLC SD in Electrocardiography, Endoscopes, and Other Medical Devices

  In modern medical equipment, embedded storage is a necessity. It is used for both...

DE2TAPX7R-35000-2 - SATA - 2.5" SSD - 2TB - MLC
What Are Solid State Memory Drives?

  Solid state memory drives, often referred to as solid state drives, or SSDs, are...

OEM Sales Solutions

  OEM sales play a critical role in many different consumer and industrial applications and...

SE16ANZ49-1B000-3 - SD - SD - 16GB - MLC | Delkin Industrial
SD Card Advice V2 for Zynq and Zynq UltraScale+ SoC Products

  Check out this helpful information on SD . Below is a link to download...

Extended Life Cycle Delkin Devices
The Importance of ELC Products for Industrial Applications

  Extended life cycle, or ELC, products are essential components of many industrial applications. With...

Understanding Types of Form Factors

  If you’ve been shopping for embedded storage, a term you are likely to have...

Contact
Choosing Solid State Storage Companies

  Solid state storage is the preferred form of storage for industrial applications, but where...

Infotainment Applications in Embedded Systems – Changing the Way We Travel

  Embedded systems have had a major impact on a long list of industries. In...

S330-225-SATA-SSD
Taking a Closer Look at SSD Utility Systems

  SSD utility systems are available in a variety of capacities and in both commercial...

Choosing a microSD Memory Supplier

  The microSD memory card, sometimes called micro SD, is a popular, high-endurance flash storage...

Transportation_Truck-Ship-Airplane
Finding Storage Solutions for Industrial Applications

  Whether they’re helping to provide access to critical patient records for doctors in emergency...

Write Protect Digital Lock
Encrypted SSD Explained

  If you are storing sensitive data, or even if you just want the knowledge...

Using Embedded Systems in Healthcare

  An embedded system is part of a larger operating system that is designed to...

Why Delkin Is a Leading Flash Memory Manufacturer

When you need flash memory for an industrial application, the flash memory manufacturer you...

Solving Medical Data Storage Issues

  With so many medical providers switching from paper records to electronic ones, medical data...

UTILITY mSATA SSD
Understanding SATA Embedded SSDs

  SATA embedded SSDs are popular for use as boot drives and storage in a...

SE51TFLHL-C1000-D
Picking the Best Industrial SD Card for Your Needs

  Industrial SD cards offer embedded storage solutions for industrial devices that require high levels...

Delkin Devices SlimSATA
What Is Industrial Slim SATA?

  Today’s devices are becoming increasingly small and increasingly slim. As such, SSDs have had...

The Effects of Radiation on NAND Flash Based Devices

  General  This article describes the effects of radiation on NAND FLASH devices and covers possible...

Industrial M.2 SSD
Taking a Closer Look at the M.2 SATA Connector

  As solid state drives, or SSDs, replaced hard disk drives (HDDs) as the most...

FAQs about M.2 2280

  M.2 2280 SSDs are a specific size of the M.2 controller format. When you...

Industrial CompactFlash
Replacing STEC Compact Flash Products

  STEC was once a major player in the OEM marketplace, but since the company...

Delkin S330 SATA SSD
Spotlight on SATA SSD Module Options for Industrial Applications

  SATA is a popular SSD choice for industrial embedded systems that need storage for...

S364APG5S-U3000-3 - SD - microSD - 64GB - MLC
A Look at the Features of Industrial Grade microSD Card Designs

  microSD cards offer high-endurance NAND flash storage in a small form factor that is...

Storage Insights #4 – NAND Flash Based SSD Drives and the Flash Controller

Click below to read the new Delkin Storage Insights post on the element14 Community...

Technical Success Stories: Host Usage and Industrial SD Cards

  Background Delkin is frequently contacted by customers who are trying to select the best SD...

Comparing Commercial Grade and Industrial Grade Flash Memory

  For OEMs and engineers looking for embedded flash memory solutions, one issue that is...

DE2TAPX7R-35000-2 - SATA - 2.5" SSD - 2TB - MLC
Comparing 2.5” SATA II to Other SATA Versions

  SATA SSDs have long been popular solutions for industrial applications. The 2.5” SATA II...

Industrial microSD Used in Digital Tachometers

  A tachometer calculates the revolutions per minute (RPM), of an object that spins. Most...

Digital Gaming Applications
Gaming Applications Embedded Systems: A Guide for OEMs

  Embedded computer systems are a constant part of everyday life, found in everything from...

Understanding Controls Applications Embedded Systems

  When you choose embedded controls, it is always necessary to consider the application with...

Delkin continuously invests in DVT—Design Verification Testing—and ORT—Ongoing Reliability Testing
Facts You Need to Know about Reliability in Testing

  Reliability in testing is an important part of the process when determining the right...

Power Fail
FAQs about Low Power Flash Drive Technology

  Power consumption is a factor that every OEM or engineer has to consider when...

Life Cycle Management
Taking a Closer Look at NAND Flash Data Retention Time

  When choosing a NAND flash storage device, many OEMs focus on the number of...

What Is NAND Flash Memory?

  NAND flash memory is the data storage format that is often found in solid...

pSLC

  pSLC stands for pseudo-SLC. This form of NAND flash technology uses MLC-style cells to...

The Industrial NAND Flash Based SSD Used in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

  This post will describe the use and proper design of Industrial Grade NAND Flash...

Industrial SATA - Delkin Devices
Solid State Storage Solutions Explained

  Solid state storage solutions, or SSS, are forms of electronic storage that offer alternatives...

Technical Success Stories: Solving SD Card Application Software Optimization

  A customer approached Delkin for assistance after their embedded computing device provided incomplete data due...

Using uSD MLC Cards for Seismic Sensors

  Seismic sensors are critical safety devices in a wide range of industries. They monitor...

eMMC Bal Side
Spotlight on eMMC 153 Ball Designs

  If you are looking for an industrial grade CPU and flash solution for your...

UTILITY SD
High Endurance SD Card Facts

  A high endurance SD card is the ultimate in dependability for industrial applications. This...

Understanding the SD Card Interface

  Secure Digital cards, or SD cards, are widely used in consumer and industrial markets....

Industrial M.2 SSD
Questions about the M.2 SATA Connector

  An ongoing concern that users have had about solid state drives, or SSDs, is...

Industrial M.2 SSD
A Look at SATA Embedded SSDs

  SATA Embedded SSDs are components that operate inside a larger system to perform a...

Delkin Devices Industrial USB Flash Drive
USB NAND Flash Overview

  USB drives may be the most widely recognized storage devices on the market. They...

Get the Facts about Flash Memory Storage Life

  One question that comes up time and again when it comes to flash memory...

Delkin Devices 2.5” SATA SSD
Understanding the Differences Between a Flash SSD Drive and a Hard Drive

  Flash SSD drives are quickly becoming the go-to technology in a variety of devices,...

Encryption and Security Development in Solid State Storage Devices (SSD)

  General This article will describe the  use of Encryption and Security measures in Sold State...

Delkin Devices Toys for Tots 2016
Delkin Devices Holding 12th Annual Toys for Tots Drive

Click here for the article in the San Diego Union Tribune Click here for more...

Delkin S330 SATA SSD
A SATA Overview for OEMs

  The Serial ATA interface, or SATA, is an interface that connects storage devices and...

S316MMZ6T-U1000-4 - SD - microSD - 16GB - SLC
Comparing pSLC and SLC

  If you have researched NAND flash storage recently, you may have encountered terms like...

Utility+ msata
Spotlight on 128GB mSATA Features

  The introduction of Mini-SATA, or mSATA, to the market in 2009 was a game-changer...

UTILITY SD
Industrial SD Card 101

  An industrial SD card is a NAND flash-based memory card that are ideal for...

Person on laptop evaluating SMART data
SMART Data SSD Reporting: What It Is and How to Read It

  SMART data reporting is the key to monitoring the performance of your SSD and...

Answering Questions about 32GB mSATA

  mSATA SSDs are a form of solid state drive (SSD) that follows the design...

Utility
What You Need to Know about High Capacity Flash Drive Options

  The demand for ever-increasing amounts of data storage means that the need for a...

eUSB- Delkin Devices USB Embedded Drive
Understanding Embedded Cards

  Embedded cards are used in embedded systems to perform specific functions. For example, embedded...

Delkin Devices Industrial USB Flash Drive
Wear Leveling USB Flash Drive Basics

  USB flash drives are one of the most widely recognized storage devices for both...

Delkin Devices mSATA
FAQs about the Largest mSATA Drive on the Market

  Delkin’s focus is on providing rugged storage solutions for industrial users, so while we...

Delkin Flash Storage for Industrial Applications
Industrial SATA for Factory Automation

  In today’s factory settings, automation is non-negotiable. Plants are adding new automation tools constantly,...

SD, D300 Series, 16GB SLC Industrial
Technical Success Stories: SLC SD Card- Finding the Right Solution

  As flash technology evolves, it is becoming increasingly challenging to compare memory devices. At...

What Are Industrial Grade Products?

  If you’re looking for NAND flash memory products, then you have likely encountered both...

S364APG5S-U3000-3 - SD - microSD - 64GB - MLC
Questions Answered about Industrial MLC microSD

  Industrial MLC microSD cards combine the benefits of MLC microSD technology with features that...

Industrial SD - Delkin Devices
Secure Digital Card Overview

  If you’ve ever looked into options for embedded flash memory, then you are likely...

SLC vs. MLC Life Span: What You Need to Know

  One of the key issues developers and OEMs have to consider when they are...

Delkin continuously invests in DVT—Design Verification Testing—and ORT—Ongoing Reliability Testing
SSD Reliability Test: How Long Do SSDs Last?

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, are becoming as ubiquitous now as hard disk drives,...

Explaining NAND Flash Memory

  NAND flash memory is at the core of most embedded storage devices and SSDs....

Collaboration- Putting together pieces of the puzzle
Understanding the Differences Between Commercial Grade and Industrial Grade Memory

  If you are shopping for flash storage devices, then you will quickly realize that...

BE64MGMZZ-XN000-D - SATA - CFast - 64GB - SLC
A Look at the Features of the Industrial Grade CFast Card

  An industrial grade CFast card combines the advantages of Compact Flash technology with the...

Industrial M.2 SSD
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about M-2 SSD

  M-2 SSDs are designed specifically for use in devices that require a very small...

eUSBDelkin Devices Embedded USB
Using the Industrial Grade 10-Pin USB DOM

   If you have used a desktop, laptop, smartphone, or other computing device in the...

Delkin Devices Industrial eMMC
What Is eMMC?

  eMMC stands for embedded MultiMediaCard. It refers to an embedded technology in which both...

Facts about Flash Storage

  Flash storage is a form of memory that is found in an enormous array...

Exploring the Basics of SATA Flash

  SATA is the most widely used interface for solid state drives, or SSDs, today....

What is a Controlled BOM? How Does It Work?

  What is a Controlled BOM (Bill of Materials) Delkin manufactures cards for the complete spectrum...

Understanding CompactFlash Card Durability

  CompactFlash is a form of NAND flash memory that is found in a wide...

Digital Signage
Digital Signage Applications’ Embedded Systems

  In the past, digital signage applications have relied on standard PC platforms in order...

Electrical Engineer Working on Host Application
Electronic Coating 101

  The electronic circuit and other components inside your SSDs and flash memory devices are...

What Is a Ruggedized SSD?

  Solid state drives, or SSDs, were once used exclusively for rugged operating conditions. However,...

Understanding Embedded Memory Systems
Answering Questions about NAND Memory Manufacturers

  When you’re choosing a NAND industrial flash storage device, the manufacturer is likely to...

SLC SATA Basics

  SLC SATA is one of the most reliable flash storage options available for industrial...

Industrial Flash Storage Customization
Custom SD Cards Explained

  SD cards are a recognized format for storage for a variety of commercial and...

UTILITY SD
How Do Wear Leveling SD Cards Work?

  SD cards are a popular choice for industrial grade memory. These NAND flash memory...

FAQs about Flash Based SSDs

  Flash based SSDs are ubiquitous in industrial applications. They take advantage of the reliability...

Embedded Computing
What Are Embedded Computing Systems?

  Embedded computing systems are used every day, yet they are often overlooked and misunderstood....

Delkin Industrial Flash Storage for Printing Applications
Industry Insights: SLC SD for Industrial Multi-function Printers

  Industrial multi-function printers offer high-speed functionality in environments that demand flawless performance. For industrial...